It is affiliation an individual share with an ethnic or cultural group. The ensuing fighting between mujahideen groups paved the way for the tectonic social and political shifts, which continue to shape events today. The history of afghanistan is a history of war and conflict even up to present day. Ethnic groups are an amalgamation of tribal groups1 which aspire for their own nationstate and are defined by a common ancestry, history, culture, specific homeland and a named population. Ethnic and tribal loyalties in afghanistan provided the lethal cocktail for the violent conflict that engulfed the country following the collapse of the soviet backed government in 1992. The politics of refugee return to afghanistan, kabul. Ethnicity and the political reconstruction in afghanistan conrad schetter center for development studies zef, university of bonn, germany 1. They are native to the region known as pashtunistan, an area west of the indus river including the provinces of khyber pakhtunkhwa and northern balochistan, southern and eastern afghanistan they constitute a significant diaspora.
The study and understudy of afghanistans ethnic groups. The tragedy of afghanistan has outlasted the countrys soviet invaders. C i v i l m i l i t a r y f u s i o n c e n t re afghan. In 2015, registered voters in afghanistan had been 17. Power relations 19461978 except of the main ethnic groups of the pashtun, tajik, hazara. Pashtuns, tajiks, hazaras, uzbeks, balochis, turkmens. The pashtuns speak pashtu or pashto, but most in the government also speak dari, a language akin to persian. During the late 19th century and early 20th century, large number of central asian tajiks fled the conquest of their native homeland by russian red army and settled in northern afghanistan. Four approaches, in combination, may have the potential to put afghanistan on a more stable and sustainable path. An interview with abdul rahman rahmani by daniel karell, associate editor. Afghanistan resumed its relative isolation under a new, more conservative king, nadir shah. The pashtuns the pashtuns, being one of the largest ethnic groups in afghanistan, also constitute a large number of tribes that share a common ancestry. Among the leaders of the warring factions were ahmad shah massoud, an ethnic tajik.
Hazara ethnic group the hazara have lived in the territory of modern afghanistan since the th century. As you would expect, there is a diverse range of ethnic groups within the country. Afghanistan ethnically is a multi ethnic society, but historically there are different evidences describing the origin of the ethnicity to immemorial and some take it to 20 th century. View the article pdf and any associated supplements and figures for a period of 48 hours. The term ethnic refers to a nation, band or people who share common customs, traditions, language, historical experiences and in some cases the same geographic residence. It examines current conceptual models of ethnicity and their application to present day political affairs in the country. Of the 31 million or so afghan residents, 42% are pashtun, 27% tajik, 9% hazara, 9% uzbek, 4% aimak, 3% turkmen, 2% baloch and 4% fall into an unspecified other group. It examines current conceptual models of ethnicity and their application to presentday political affairs in the country. Ethnicity and civil society in contemporary afghanistan. Afghanistan administrative divisions 2009 617k and pdf format 736k afghanistan administrative divisions 2008 591k and pdf format 736k afghanistan pakistan administrative divisions 2012 10. Pdf the kite runner and the problem of racism and ethnicity. Unlike in the wake of the soviet withdrawal in 1989, this time the. Sep 10, 2014 the tool used to assess the availability of studies on afghanistan s ethnic groups is the most recent edition of the afghanistan analyst bibliography, which covers sources from the late 1950s to the present. As stated in the description, all ethnic groups of afghanistan with the exclusion of a few very minor groups with no photographs or much information availab.
This course content has been designed to draw a systemic analysis of ethnic, religious and political factors that reflects compage of afghan society. To name them all would be to create severe embarrassment for so me. Contemporary usage of tajik generally narrows to sedentary, persianspeaking sunni muslims in central asia and afghanistan with a few exceptions such as. There are regional differences in mood, and region plays as great a role as ethnicity in shaping political outlooks. Ethnic factor in afghanistan muhammad saleem mazhar samee ozair khan naheed s. The nature of afghanistan characteristics of the afghanistan population the humanitarian situation the reform process and the centrality of womens role the ethnic dimensions of the mujahidin government, 19926 the taliban advance and the impact on minorities islam and ethnicity the international dimension.
For the first time in more than two decades, there was a real possibility of peace and stability in the country. Federations special issue on afghanistan, october 2001 law and order as well as a state of total moral, social, political, economic and military chaos. The fact that afghanistan is a multiethnic country, hasnt however detract from the fact that there also exist a sense of a national afghan identity among afghanistan citizens. Afghanistan, ethnicity an imperative identity that one can rarely rid oneself of it eriksen 2009, 161 has the function that class has in marxism. Afghanistan research and evaluation nit 2016 the other side of ender inequality.
The afghan national anthem and the afghan constitution each mention fourteen of them, though the lists are not exactly the same. Afghanistan is a heterogeneous society of pashtuns. Jun 23, 2020 the intersection of ethnic, cultural and national identity in afghanistan. In the late 1930s, british efforts to thwart nazi germanys efforts to gain an economic and political foothold in afghanistan drew the country into international politics. Background to ethnic politics in afghanistan of all afghanistan related topics, ethnicity is the one where the scholar most risks offending deep sensibilities. The first round of elections process took place on 5 april 2014.
The other ethnic groups in afghanistan include the tajiks of afghanistan 27 percent of the total population who continue to maintain kinship with their. The ethnic, cultural and national identity in afghanistan. Afghanistans political and constitutional development. Afghanistans ethnic divides abubakar siddique senior correspondent covering afghanistan and pakistan for rferls. What accounts for the emergence of ethnicity, as the main cause.
Ethnicity in afghanistan group selection the following groups are politically relevant in afghanistan at some point in time since 1946. Ethnic and rural communities, many of which are divided by mountains and wide expanses, have often looked to local faction leaders for their governance. Pdf ethnicity, paragon of power in afghanistan ehsan. Ethnicization of politics in afghanistan by hamidullah. Baloch, brahui, aimaq, hazara, nuristani, pamir tajiks, pashai, pashtuns, qizalbash, tajiks, turkmen, uzbeks. Afghanistan is located in central asia, north and west of pakistan, east of iran, and south of turkmenistan, uzbekistan, and tajikistan. Ethnicity is the heritage or nationality of a group, but it is not connected to a specific race.
Unlike her neighbours to the east and north, conquered by the british and russian empires respectively, afghanistan had fought for, and retained, its independence. Afghanistans political and constitutional development abstract the events of 11 september brought dramatic changes to the political landscape of afghanistan. Throughout afghanistan s tumultuous decades of war, the constant tug of power among the various ethnicities has made the country one of the most misunderstood places in the world. Pdf geographic, ethnic and linguistic composition of. This article focuses on the critical question of ethnicity and politics in afghanistan. Central asian cultural intelligence for military operations. The majority of ethnic hazaras are shia muslims and 90% of shia muslims are hazaras. Afghanistan s diverse ethnic communities or on the 80% of afghans who live in rural areas.
Introduction for many centuries, afghanistan has been a natural corridor for conquerors and traders that moved troops or goods from west to east, between middle east and india, and the other way around. That theory links conflict intensity to three indices of ethnic distribution. Pashtun, tajik, hazara, uzbek, aimaq, turkmen, baloch, pashai, nuristani, gujjar, arab, brahui, qizilbash, pamiri, kyrgyz, sadat and others. Pdf the politics of ethnicity in afghanistan rhea abraham. Sunni muslim 84%, shia muslim 15%, other hindu, jewish, christians 1%. Such generalizations desensitize and ignore the root of afghanistans decade long conflict. But such fears were based on a false reading of afghan history and fostered a system of regional and ethnic patronage.
Methodological rich points of language policy and planning march 2018 doi. Ethnicity and civil society in contemporary afghanistan carol j. The majority of the hazara live in the hazarajat, also called hazarastan. The hazara population is geographically divided between the hazarajat hazara, who live in the central hindu kush mountains, and those living outside the hazarajat. In the north especially, the hezbi islami can more easily recruit from nonpashtun ethnic groups. Ethnic violence, impact on afghanistan afghanistan is a country made up of numerous ethnic groups.
Pdf misunderstanding ethnicity in the afghan conflict. Ethnicity in afghanistan how to deal with the presence. Afghanistan is a multiethnic and mostly tribal society. Hence ethnicity has been opposed by competing identities as well as by strategic considerations of the war factions. In 1747, the pashtun, the dominant ethnic group in afghanistan, established their dynasty. Ethnic groups are pashtuns, hazara, tajik, uzbek, aimaq, turkmen, baloch and a few others. Pashtun 52%, tajik 25%, uzbek 6%, hazara 12%, other 5%. Men and masculinities in afghanistan i about the authors chona r. There is a variation of the power and importance of these ethnic groups. Aug 19, 2011 in 2001, fearing ethnic strife, the international community pushed for a strong central government in kabul. Therefore this research is also interested in the role of this notion of an afghan identity with regards to the views young afghans hold towards kymlickas theory.
It therefore marked a major milestone for democratisation. These groups, throughout time, have used violence to achieve their goals. When discussing ethnicity, it often proves difficult to draw clear distinctions between terms such as social, ethnic and minority groups. Pakistani factor journal of indian studies 185 one of the important countries of south asia, afghanistan is based on different ethnic groups. In particular, interviewees the south and northwest were more negative than respondents in. Pashtun the pashtun are the dominant ethnic group in afghanistan and account for over. Williamsburg, va, 23188 pashtun tribalism and ethnic nationalism the taliban, and making the argument that this is the only way counterinsurgency success will be possible in afghanistan. States shall protect the existence and the national or ethnic, cultural, religious and linguistic identity of minorities within their respective territories and shall. The taliban, a group of hardline islamic clerics, emerged as a reaction to the chaosor, according to some analysts. Schetter published misunderstanding ethnicity in the afghan conflict find, read and cite all the research you need. Ethnic origins, nationalterritorial delimitation and nationalism.
They comprise about 30 tribes, each consisting of a clan or its own lineage. Afghanistan ethnically is a multiethnic society, but historically there are different evidences describing the origin of the ethnicity to immemorial and some take it to 20 th century. What is most remarkable in the study of afghanistan s ethnic groups is the disparity in who gets studied and who does not. Ethnic pashtuns pronounced poshtoons, sometimes referred to as pathanspahtahns, as the largest single ethnicity, have historically asserted a right to rule afghanistan. Pashtuns consist of the largest ethnic group in afghanistan. For decades, afghanistan which is a racist and ethnocentric country has been suffering from foreign interventions e. Although the political players in afghanistan do not entirely emphasise on ethnicity in political representation, the bonn conference of 2001 on afghanistan agreed to the civil reconstruction of an ethnic environment, and thereby projects the importance of ethnicity in the politics of afghanistan. Afghanistans national anthem recognizes 14 ethnic groups among the countrys 27 million people. The crisis and politics of ethnicity in afghanistan asia. Approximately 46% of the population is under 15 years of age. Introduction when it comes to the meaning of ethnicity concerning the current afghan war different opinions collide. Tribal analysis center, 6610m mooretown road, box 159. The issues of which categories to use for afghan social groups, the percentages to ascribe to.
Goraya abstract ethnicity as an issue has been faced by all multi ethnic societies. Their resort to violence could be based upon a combination of family loyalties, or religious and ethnic issues, or local and national politics, or other cultural matters. The soviet invasi on and the afghan response, 19791982, berkeley, university of california press, 1995, ch. Minority rights group international e p o afghanistan. Conrad schetter ethnicity and the political reconstruction. Ethnicity, corruption and voting behavior in afghanistan. Hazaras can usually be recognised by their physical appearance see background and demography.
Ethnic political mobilization in contemporary afghanistan. Afghanistan is also like the other countries facing this fact. Ethnicity and nationalism in afghanistan in the post. The population of afghanistan is around 38,928,346 in 2020, which includes the roughly 3 million afghan citizens living as refugees in both pakistan and iran. The arabs introduced islam in the 7th century and the turks briefly made afghanistan the center of islamic power and civilization at the beginning of the 11th century. Ethnicity and the political reconstruction in afghanistan. Afghanistan population 2021 demographics, maps, graphs. Shahrani takes the afghan ethnical categorition very far,but conrad schetter assure dollot french anthropologist, whofor the first time titled the afghan people. Some people of the nuristan a place north of afghanistan is said to be the remnants of these greek soldiers. International consensus needed for the talibans nonreturn through force with a may 1 deadline looming for the withdrawal of the remaining u. To correct matters, the united states should deemphasize afghanistan s ethnic fault lines and push for more devolved and inclusive governance. For the purposes of the nmdp consent for participation form and general nmdp work, ethnicity is viewed as an environmental influence on a person, versus a genetic trait. In 1747, the pashtun, the dominant ethnic group in afghanistan, established their dynasty in the eastern and southern portions of the country. The narrow wakhan corridor extends from northeasternmost afghanistan to meet with china.
An empirical study by joan esteban, laura mayoral, and debraj ray we examine empirically the impact of ethnic divisions on conflict, by using a specification based on esteban and ray 2011. Riphenburg this article focuses on the critical question of ethnicity and politics in afghanistan. In afghanistan the conflicts were primarily political, not ethnic and religious, and were fuelled by superpower politics. He has spent the past decade researching and writing about security, political, humanitarian and cultural issues in pakistan, afghanistan, and the pashtun heartland along the border region where he was born. Of the 30, the five major groups or confederations are the durrani, ghilzai. Most importantly, rivalry among pashtun tribes over the years has indirectly subdued and disturbed the regional and social environment of the other ethnic groups such as the tajiks, uzbeks and hazaras, who have voiced their concerns to the international community and have played a key role in the antitaliban operations in afghanistan. Conrad schetter, ethnicity and the political reconstruction of afghanistan, center for development studies zef university of bonn, germany, working paper 3, 2004. The nation is composed of a multi ethnic and multilingual society, reflecting its location astride historic trade and invasion routes between central asia, southern asia, and western asia. Geographic, ethnic and linguistic composition of afghanistan. When it comes to the meaning of ethnicity concerning the current afghan war. Ethnic conflict is still a key variable in understanding afghanistans. The issues of which categories to use for afghan social groups, the percentages to ascribe to them and even whether ethnicity matters at all are much disputed. The decline of the pashtuns in afghanistan uc press journals. Ethnic groups in afghanistan ethnic groups, for fredrik barth 19282016,18 are most commonly defined as social groups that meet four criterions.
Jun 26, 2012 the fragmentation of the communist peoples democratic party of afghanistan along ethnic lines in the 1960s1980s in spite of support and pressure from the soviet union is a prime example. Conrad schetter ethnicity and the political reconstruction in. But it is a matter of great apprehensions and graver outcomes in those societies which are going through postconflict reconstruction, like afghanistan is today. The population of the country consists of numerous ethnolinguistic groups. Almost all of the countries are facing the ethnic issues.
Tajiks are the major ethnic group in neighboring tajikistan, a country that was created north of afghanistan in 1991. The average registered voters in both countries have been 67 % of the population. Pashtuns, tajiks, hazaras, uzbeks, balochis, turkmens, nooristanis, pamiris, arabs, gujars, brahuis, qizilbash, aimaq and pashai. The national anthem of afghanistan includes fourteen ethnic. Afghanistan occupies approximately 647,500 square kilometers, slightly less than texas. A ground report from afghanistan chanakya forum chanakya forum india is progressing faster than any time before and has found a strong will to be a self reliant, responsible and resurgent nation, thus striving to achieve its former glory. This was the path chosen by alexander the great, 328 years before christ.1300 465 474 918 1192 253 1189 348 927 1365 842 229 879 834 217 1224 1307 403 405 833 1249 1031 850 451 1500 1367 1493 839 1205 1154 219 425 205 1063 384 1475