Despite the overwhelming evidence that living in poorquality housing and built environments are significant contributors to public health problems, housing issues persist and represent a considerable societal and economic burden worldwide. Biomass fuel combustion and indoor air quality in developing countries perry r. Household air pollution in low and middleincome countries. About 27,000 people died from hap in andhra pradesh in 2016 according to gbd 2016. It is the poor who rely on the lower grades of fuel and have least access to cleaner technologies. Quantifying the effects of exposure to indoor air pollution. Outdoor air pollution an overview sciencedirect topics. Indoor air pollution iap also called household air pollution hap in developing countries is a major environmental and public health challenge. Indoor air pollution iap is responsible for many health, environmental, and social issues that. This shift creates jobs in the developing countries, but at the price of exposure to air pollution resulting from outdated technology. Reaffirmed by ashrae technology council june 26, 2019.
Improved wood stoves provide an overall reduction in the emission concentration compared to 3stone fire. Exposure in poor homes far exceeds accepted safety levels. Poor indoor air quality is a recognized risk factor for acute respiratory infections in children and a known risk factor for respiratory diseases in adults. Indoor air pollution iap is a key contributor to the global burden of disease mainly in developing countries. Housing, indoor air pollution, and health in highincome. The main problems are in the developing countries with the indoor burning of biomass for cooking and heating. Urban air pollution and health in developing countries. In addition, the health burden associated with indoor air pollution does not appear to be equal for developing and developed countries. Half the worlds population uses these burning materials. Pdf of the four principal categories of indoor pollution combustion products, chemicals, radon and biologicals, research in developing countries has. The south east asian and western pacific regions bear most of the burden with 1. The who world health report 2002 estimates that iap is responsible for 2. Smoke the killer in the kitchen humanitarian library. Women typically spend three to seven hours per day by the fire, exposed to smoke.
Although some indoor air pollutants, such as environmental tobacco smoke, are of concern globally. Policy brief for gsdr 2016 update the rapidly growing. The major sources of indoor air pollution include combustion and building materials. The resulting indoor air pollution iap is a major threat to health. Of particular concern is the association between indoor air pollution and child acute respiratory. These cold climates necessitated the construction of shelters and the use of fire indoors for cooking, warmth and light. The regional office for europe of the world health organization welcomes requests. Indoor air pollution in developing countries who world health. As mentioned earlier, many in rural areas and in developing countries use simple, poorly ventilated stoves, burning wood, dung and crop residue for domestic energy bruce, et al. Up to date, numerous studies have pointed lationout the re ship between the exposure to indoor air pollution iap and several health problems who, 2006. Types of air pollution indoor and outdoor while this chapter deals with the issues of pollution to the atmosphere and climate locally, regionally and globally, it is also important to note the significant hazards posed by indoor air pollution.
Of the four principal categories of indoor pollution combustion products, chemicals, radon and biologicals, research in developing countries has focused on combustiongenerated pollutants, and principally those from solidfuelfired cooking and heating stoves. Indoor air pollution an overview sciencedirect topics. Despite recent advances in estimating the health impacts of indoor smoke, there are limited studies targeted toward the design and implementation of effective intervention programs. The problem of indoor air pollution has been around for decades but we have never viewed it as a single and critically important risk factor for poor health in the developing world. Indoor air pollution in developing countries and acute lower. The kenya medical research institute centers for disease control and prevention kemricdc, in partnership with the safe water and aids project external swap and berkeley air monitoring group external, is currently evaluating six improved cookstoves with the potential of lowering indoor air pollution in 50 households in two villages in nyanza province. Pdf indoor air pollution and respiratory health of children. Smithd air pollution in general and indoor air pollution in particular have been associated in many peoples mind with industrialization and urbanization and, thus, with the. Available studies indicate that indoor air pollution iap from household cooking and space heating apparently causes substantial ill.
Introduction globally, almost three billion people rely on biomass wood, charcoal, crop residues, and dung and coal as their primary source of domestic energy 1, 2. Status of air pollution in botswana and significance to air. During cooking, when women and very young children spend most time in the kitchen and near the fire, much higher levels of pm. Since much of the cooking is carried out indoors in environments that lack proper. Introduction indoor air pollution exposure in developing countries indoor air pollution can be traced to prehistoric times when humans first moved to temperate climates approximately 200,000 years ago. In developing countries, the most significant issue for indoor air quality is pollutants released during the combustion of. Outdoor air pollution and health in the developing. How developing countries struggling with air pollution can. Perhaps less generally understood by the indoor air community, however, is that the largest exposures to health. Specifically, indoor air pollution affects women and small children far more than any other sector of society.
In developing countries, recent natural experiments have provided opportunities to measure the health impacts of higher concentrations of ambient air pollution. Sep 01, 2017 air pollution is an important issue in developed and industrialized countries. Around 50% of people, almost all in developing countries, rely on coal and biomass in the form of wood, dung and crop residues for domestic energy. Indoor sources are the primary cause of indoor air quality problems in homes. Sep 04, 2009 outdoor air pollution and health in the developing countries of asia. Prevention of the health effects of poor indoor air quality is needed. Some of the most common and harmful components are suspended particulate matter and carbon monoxide co, which both cause adverse health impacts through acute or chronic. According to data from the world health organisation as many as 4. Such stoves are used in more than half the worlds households and have been shown in many locations to produce high indoor. Interventions to reduce child exposure to indoor air. Outdoor air pollution and health in the developing countries of asia. Exposure to indoor air pollution, especially to particulate matter, from the combustion of biofuels wood, charcoal, agricultural residues, and dung has been implicated as a causal agent of respiratory diseases in developing countries 49. Knowledge, gaps, and data needs majid ezzati and daniel m.
The challenge is immense because nearly 3 billion people worldwide use indoor cookstoves and are exposed daily to the pollution. Abstract outdoor air pollution in developing country cities is difficult to overlook. The amount and composition of indoor air pollution varies depending on many factors including fuel size and moisture content bhattacharya, albina, and myint khaing, 2002. Household energy, indoor air pollution, and health in. The major sources of indoor air pollution worldwide include indoor combustion of solid fuels, tobacco smoking, outdoor air pollutants, emissions from construction materials and furnishings, and improper maintenance of ventilation and air conditioning systems. In developing countries, indoor exposure to pollutants from the household combustion of solid fuels on open fires or traditional stoves increases the risk of acute lower respiratory infections and associated mortality among young children. Having a large family in developing countries increases the chance of exposure to indoor air pollution. The cause is indoor pollution from cooking without vents, using wood or manure as fuel. Indoor air pollution, health and economic wellbeing mit economics.
Bank for reconstruction and developmentthe world bank encourages. For low and middleincome countries, biomass burning and indoor heating are the leading sources of air pollution. Pollution from the combustion of these fuels causes severe diseases and significant death rates worldwide. Addressing the links between indoor air pollution, household.
Different toxicants in indoor air, according to sources, settings. Indoor air pollution in developing nations is a significant form of indoor air pollution iap that is little known to those in the developed world three billion people in developing countries across the globe rely on biomass, in the form of wood, charcoal, dung, and crop residue, as their domestic cooking fuel. Indoor air pollution onethird of the worlds population burns organic material such as wood, dung or charcoal for cooking, heating and lighting fullerton et al, 2008. Behavioural change, indoor air pollution and child. Indoor air pollution iap caused by solid fuel use andor traditional cooking stoves is a global health threat, particularly for women and young children. The health impacts of exposure to indoor air pollution from. A research agenda for indoor air pollution fogarty. Exposure to indoor air pollution from the combustion of solid fuels is an important cause of disease and mortality in developing countries. The most common sources of air pollution are anthropogenic activities such as construction dust, vehicular emissions and mining. The health impacts of exposure to indoor air pollution. The complex interaction between multiple behavioral, lifestyle, and environmental factors influencing health throughout the lifecourse i. There is scientific evidence that risk of pneumonia and acute infection of the lower. Solid fuels used in cooking and heating include wood, coal, lignite, peat, and dung. This association, coupled with the fact that globally more than 2 billion people rely on bio.
In the last several years, a growing body of scientific evidence has indicated that the air within homes and other buildings can be more seriously polluted than the outdoor air in even the largest and most industrialized cities. It also offers strategies to mitigate problems related to indoor air pollution. Feb 25, 1989 indoor and outdoor air pollution in the himalayas environ sci technol 20 1986 561 67 mumford jl he xz chapman rs lung cancer and indoor pollution in xuan wei, china science 235 1987 217 35 14 boleij j. Indoor air pollution and exposure to hazardous substances in the home are risks we can do something about. There are numerous sources of indoor air pollution, including combustion of domestic fuels such as coal, wood. This can be compared with one death every 8 seconds. Indoor air pollution and health in developing countries the. The health impacts of exposure to indoor air pollution from solid. Pdf indoor air pollution and respiratory health of. Indoor air pollution, health and economic wellbeing. Thus indoor air pollution is the priority air pollution issue in most developing countries in those regions due to the use of inefficient solid household fuels and appliances for cooking and heating. Download for all countries xls, 147kb deaths and dalys attributable to 3 environmental risk factors.
Indoor air quality plays a major role with regard to public health. Indoor air pollution in developing nations wikipedia. United nations childrens fund unicef, new york, 2017. The unmet need for family planning resources and the. In developed regions, good ventilation, getting rid of dampness problems, and ad. Outdoor air pollution and health in the developing countries. Perhaps less generally understood by the indoor air community, however, is that the largest exposurestohealthdamagingindoorpollutionprobably occur in the developing world, not in the. Oct 03, 2016 combustion of solid fuels and indoor air quality in primarily developing countries. About 38% of the population in andhra pradesh relied on solid fuels for cooking in 201516. Topics include global air pollution trends, differences in emissions and concentrations of key air pollutants in different regions, emission sources disproportionately affecting developing countries, estimating disease burden in developing countries, and recommendations based on historical successes and lessons from developed countries. Research on the health impacts of indoor air pollution in developing countries has been hindered by a lack of detailed data on both exposure and illness outcomes. Indoor air pollution associated with household fuel use. Environmental protection agencys annual air pollution standard for pm 10 is 50 3gm, one to two orders of magnitude lower than levels seen in many homes in developing countries.
In addition, specific hazardous compounds, such as asbestos, have been banned in developed countries kazanallen 2004, but their use may still be common in developing countries. World health organization protection of the human environment. Indoor air pollution who world health organization. Whousaid consultation on indoor air pollution and health may 34, 2000. The use of solid fuel for cooking and heating is the main source of iap in. In the developing world, however, much housing lies in tropical and subtropical regions and typically. The energy access situation in developing countries publication on. The health impacts of exposure to indoor air pollution from solid fuels in developing countries. Who national burden of disease due to indoor air pollution. According to the global alliance for clean cookstoves, over 40% of the worlds population cooks with open fires inside their homes, using biomass like wood and charcoal for cooking fuel. Exposure to indoor air pollution in developing countries has been most clearly associated with increased risk of acute lower respiratory infection, middle ear infection otitis media, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Effectiveness of improved cookstoves to reduce indoor air. These materials are typically burnt in simple stoves with very incomplete combustion. Indoor air pollution in developing nations is a major health hazard. Country profiles with disease burden from selected environmental risk factors, including indoor air pollution. A major source of indoor air pollution in developing countries is the burning of biomass.
The substantial fraction of time that populations spend in buildings underlines the importance of indoor air. When discussing problems with the indoor environment the focus is often on the requirements for ventilation. An intervention study in bangladesh grant miller,1 musfiq mobarak,2 lynn hildemann,3 paul wise,4 and brac environmental venture projects forum woods institute for the environment october 7, 2009 1stanford medical school department of medicine and nber. Public health 2014, 11 4608 pollution is associated with 1. Pdf exposure to indoor air pollution iap from the burning of solid fuels for cooking, heating, and lighting accounts for a significant portion of. Exposure to indoor air pollution may be responsible for nearly 2 million excess deaths in developing countries and for some 4% of the global burden of disease. Indoor air pollution and health in developing countries. Firewood usage and indoor air pollution from traditional. Indoor air pollution in developing countries and acute. The challenge is immense because nearly 3 billion people worldwide use indoor cookstoves and are exposed daily to the pollution that this yields. The unmet need for family planning resources and the ensuing. Indoor air pollution in developing nations is a significant form of indoor air pollution iap that is little known to those in the developed world. When discussing problems with the indoor environment. In these settings, many epidemiologic studies have.
Indoor air pollution caused by burning such traditional fuels as wood, crop residues, and dung is less evident, yet it is responsible for a significant part of country and global disease burdens. Effectiveness of houseplants in reducing the indoor air. Indoor air pollution is not an indiscriminate killer. Despite recent advances in estimating the health impacts of indoor smoke, there are limited studies targeted toward the design and implementation of. Three billion people in developing countries across the globe rely on biomass in the form of wood, charcoal, dung, and crop residue, as their domestic cooking fuel. Biomass fuels and coal are vital to health and welfare in developing nations.592 198 1014 1047 254 62 327 945 778 521 641 1231 1252 633 106 1223 7 701 1390 237 936 19 1006 139 1191 926 1473 1105 1078